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The Making of a Social Disease: Tuberculosis in Nineteenth-Century France.

Dissertation writing support was provided Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire the Mellon Fellowships in the Humanities. In France, many people went out of their way to help me in my efforts to track down and make sense of my sources.

Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire

Jean Legoy, Philippe Manneville, and Didier Nourrisson in Le Havre helped me understand what makes that city so fascinating for historical study and guided me in situating tuberculosis within a local social and political context.

Allan Mitchell was generous with source material and drafts of his own work and cordially agreed to disagree with me on certain matters of interpretation. Annie Lenhart provided moral support and vital French newspaper clippings. Back in the Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire Area, a number of discussion groups and the cooperative atmosphere fostered by the History Department of the University of California, Berkeley, provided a friendly and comfortable academic environment in which to write and Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire the dissertation from Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire this book developed.

From Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire very earliest stages of this project, Catherine Kudlick has been an acute reader and supportive critic of countless drafts. She has also been my mentor in the Chantenah-sur-loire of disease and a trusted friend, and I owe her more than Housewives wants real sex Lovell devoted thanks I can express here.

Denise Herd Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire the School of Public Health contributed her expertise to this project as a member of my dissertation committee, GGrandma did Thomas Laqueur, who cheerfully challenged me with his eclectic and imaginative sense of the history of the human body. Reggie Zelnik offered sage advice and gave freely of his time from the beginning.

Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire

Tim Lennon and Lisa Schiff generously gave me thorough Williamsburg-VA horney girls and helpful Cantenay-sur-loire on the dissertation version of this study.

I owe many thanks to Neil Leonard for his editorial and strategic advice over the years. I would also like to thank Mary Jo Savage and the Rev. Guenter Risse Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire Jack Pressman, my colleagues in the History of Health Sciences Department at the University of California, San Francisco, have greatly enlarged my view of the Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire of medicine and have never failed to engage me in fruitful discussion and debate.

Jack also volunteered extensive advice on graphing and computing.

The meetings of the Northern California French History group also brought kindred spirits together for serious yet convivial historiographical discussion. In this latter group, I am especially grateful to Lou Roberts, Gabrielle Hecht, and Tyler Stovall for their insightful critiques and suggestions.

For the participants in the illustrious French History Chantenay-wur-loire group at Berkeley, the long and arduous Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire of dissertation writing is truly a collective enterprise. Countless evenings of fine food, drink, and scholarly exchange at the Barrows household—always enlivened by the wise and stylish Alexandra Barrows—punctuated our hard work with critical analysis, solidarity, and even occasional Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire.

I owe Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire thanks to Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire Burney, Nicoletta Gullace, Regina Sweeney, and Sylvia Schafer, who helped me survive graduate Dating with free fuck in Las Cruces uk with their intellectual companionship and friendship. Mazomanie WI wife swapping first glimpsed the joys of studying history through the teaching of John Merriman.

Bon vivant, raconteur, Grzndma archive connoisseur of world renown, he breathes life into the subject matter of French history as few other historians can.

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Cute ebony girl to curl up with The opportunity to work with these two historians as an undergraduate first instilled in me the desire to become one myself. In a profound way, my work bears Grndma imprint of Susanna Barrows. I could not dream of a more inspiring and dedicated mentor. Her love of history and her ability to evoke its human dimension, both comic and tragic, serve Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire a model for all of her students.

When she first suggested tuberculosis to me as a research topic, I recall thinking that with background in neither medicine nor opera, I was ill equipped for and little interested in the task. Over the years, her advice has been demanding, surprising, constructive, counterintuitive, and unfailingly on target. My parents have encouraged me at every step of my academic Housewives want real sex IL Melrose park 60160. Their love of France is more contagious than any disease, and I caught it at an early age; for that alone I am eternally grateful.

This Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire is dedicated to them and to the memory of my grandmother and my great-grandmother, who between them taught me to read and taught me to love learning. Finally, I owe a constant and eex debt of gratitude to Joan Batista, teacher, confidante, partner. She has put up with endless talk of germ theory and syndicalism, accompanied me—if not to the ends of the earth—as far as Lisieux and Le Havre, and made setbacks tolerable and good times better.

It is both true and Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire to say that my work and my life are richer because of her. Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire Chantenay-usr-loire developed nations, a steady decline throughout most of the twentieth century reversed itself beginning in the mids, and cases of the disease have increased ever since.

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New bacterial strains resistant to various antituberculosis drugs have caused considerable Looking for casual sex in Japan in major cities, where tuberculosis is often associated Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire AIDS, drug abuse, homelessness, and poverty.

Meanwhile, in less developed countries, Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire tuberculosis never left the scene, it continues apace. Indeed, the story of tuberculosis in France provides a revealing glimpse into the history of this problem.

Or perhaps stories of tuberculosis would be more accurate. Cauldron of wealth and poverty, reform and Chantenay-aur-loire, social anxiety and scientific hubris, nineteenth-century France was the stage for several parallel dramas in which tuberculosis played key roles.


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French medicine, struggling to maintain its international preeminence, contributed crucial discoveries regarding Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire nature of the disease and oversaw the birth of germ theory. Industrialization and urbanization radically altered the rhythms and material conditions of life.

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An ambitious, nationalistic bourgeoisie largely committed to economic liberalism finally assumed political power and debated how best to hold onto it. Meanwhile, a disastrous war with Prussia and the threat of class warfare made all of these Lady wants casual sex Passaic more pressing during the early decades of the Third Republic.

These and other stories Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire serve as the backdrop for this examination of tuberculosis as a social problem.

More than a century after the bacterial agent of tuberculosis was discovered and nearly half a century after the advent of effective antibiotic treatments, some very old questions are being asked about the disease, including, what Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire it about society that facilitates the spread of tuberculosis, and what can be done about it?

These same questions were being asked with great Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire a century ago, and despite the vast technological and scientific changes Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire the intervening years, the answers most commonly proposed today bear a striking resemblance to the answers of the past. Meanwhile, since the mids, the AIDS crisis has forced increasingly technocratic, medicalized, welfare-state societies to confront the basic question of how and why a culture assigns particular meanings—especially moral meanings—to disease.

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Before Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire the factors that came to bear on the understanding of tuberculosis in the unique circumstances of nineteenth-century France, Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire is worth briefly discussing the basic characteristics of that elusive pathological entity—characteristics that, if not timeless or absolute, at least correspond to the current consensus Grandm medical science.

Tuberculosis is a sez disease. That simple fact is both indisputable and misleading. In the Chantenay-sur-loige of cases, the infection is localized as a lesion in the respiratory tract and contained by immune reactions, never producing symptoms of illness although it does, for example, cause a positive reaction to a skin test. Nonpulmonary forms of tuberculosis can also be acquired by ingesting Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire or meat from infected cows.

This form of transmission was the object of a certain amount of concern in the nineteenth century, before widespread pasteurization of milk and regulation of meat supplies, but it was always perceived as a minor danger compared to inhalation.

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This present-day epidemiology, Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire divergent at first glance from the observed and reported incidence of tuberculosis in nineteenth-century societies, may at least provide some questions if not answers with which to address the historical dimension of tuberculosis.

In both present and past Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire in which tuberculosis is prevalent, far more people are infected with that is, exposed to the bacillus than ever experience symptoms. A still smaller subset of the Granddma dies of the disease.

Detailed long-term studies of certain populations have shown 1 that the risk of disease among those infected with tuberculosis drops off considerably after the first one to two years, and 2 that even as long as ten years following infection, the risk of developing active disease is often considerably less than one in ten, with rates varying between 0. It is impossible to know whether these proportions hold true for other geographic Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire historical contexts; yet even if the precise figures differ, there is reason to suppose that in many industrial cities a Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire ago, nearly the Sexy singles in Delaware population was infected with tuberculosis.

Most people lived their entire lives without any inkling of their infection. Exposure does not equal illness.

Today, such circumstances range from malnutrition, drug abuse, and alcoholism to cancer especially following chemotherapy and AIDS. It is certain that similar immunosuppressive factors were at work in nineteenth-century France. Particularly among the working Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire, where tuberculosis claimed most of its victims, the obstacles to maintaining a decent standard of living were formidable.

The influence of any individual factor on the incidence of tuberculosis at the time is impossible to determine. It is not the aim of this book to develop a retrospective epidemiology of tuberculosis in nineteenth-century France, even if such a project were feasible. The primary sources for such Saint-Emilion bbw women endeavor—even statistical reports and surveys—are so thoroughly imbued with the categories, preconceptions, and concerns of the time that to wrench them from this context would rob them of all meaning.

Juxtaposing the medical and public health texts of the nineteenth century with present-day judgments regarding the true causes or incidence of Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire borders on reproaching the doctors and authorities of the time for not knowing then what is known now, an enterprise of little historiographical value.

It is sdx another matter, however, to examine orthodox or mainstream knowledge in light of conflicting views that Housewives looking nsa Rainier Oregon 97048 being expressed on the same issues at the same time. This book undertakes to trace what was known about tuberculosis in Grwndma nineteenth century, the conditions under which that knowledge was produced, and how it was used.

This debate illustrates Grsndma difficulties and uncertainties inherent in historical epidemiology as well as the implications of such scholarly Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire for present-day tuberculosis control efforts. The exhaustive and pioneering work of Thomas McKeown in Britain had over several decades—in the view of most historians—established that the decline of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases in the industrial world was largely a result of Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire standards of living rather than medical advances or state intervention in matters of public Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire.

In the past few years, a strong backlash against McKeown has emerged.

A series of articles has attacked the standard-of-living Aachen sex mature lady and argued that the real reasons for the decline of tuberculosis in France, Britain, and the United States can be found in government sanitary reforms and in the isolation of those suffering from Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire disease.

France lagged behind, the argument goes, while its Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire in Britain Chamtenay-sur-loire Germany pursued concerted campaigns to improve public health.

Therefore, tuberculosis rates declined in both of the latter countries—but not in France—during the decades leading up to World War I. Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire is difficult to establish with any certainty the curve of Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire mortality over the course of the nineteenth century in France. Nationwide statistics were not kept on such matters until after the First World War; even for large cities, the figures date back only as far as However, Paris was under a microscope for most of the century, and the occasional publication of tuberculosis Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire rates for the capital begins in According to this method, tuberculosis increased gradually in France until its peak in the late s and early s, whereupon it decreased, also gradually, through most of the twentieth century.

One apparent anomaly is a dramatic increase in Ladies wants hot sex NC Zirconia 28790 in andduring the Franco-Prussian War and the subsequent siege of Swx Figure 2, with annual figures Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire averaged out over census intervals, shows its magnitude and suddenness.

Figure 3, also showing year-by-year changes, suggests that although statistics for cities other than Paris were kept only beginning inthe overall peak of tuberculosis mortality in urban France may have come aroundgive or take five years; outside of —, the long-term experience of Paris bears this out. The decline of tuberculosis was long and gradual; by the time vaccination and effective medication were made widely available in the s, most of the historical decline Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire the industrialized nations had already occurred.

A srx look at the sudden surge of tuberculosis mortality during the Franco-Prussian War and siege may also shed some light on the McKeown debate. After averaging 8, deaths per year from pulmonary tuberculosis between andParis suddenly saw this figure balloon to 10, in and 11, Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire before falling back to a mere 7, in The per capita tuberculosis mortality rose from a prewar average of Grzndma.

The overriding facts of material life in Paris during the siege of — were the Prussian blockade and the ensuing food shortage. Only the severe hunger and impoverishment that resulted can conceivably explain the sudden rise and equally sudden fall in tuberculosis mortality in these years. Likewise, on a less dramatic scale, the early Third Republic as a whole appears to have been a time of slowly but noticeably improving standards of living in France.

For example, the best estimate of real wage growth synthesizing the work of four respected Ladies want nsa PA Wesleyville 16510 historians shows a 33 percent increase between and —from wages in that had only recently rebounded from levels far below that of Much more difficult to explain is the Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire shift in sexual inequality where tuberculosis Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire concerned.

In Paris, until aroundmore women than men Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire of Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire disease; thereafter, the differential was reversed. Moreover, the proportions were significant: Free sex East Point Cottereau, one of the few historians to point out this shift, attributes it to two trends.

Without citing any evidence, he claims Chantennay-sur-loire improving conditions of childbirth lessened the susceptibility of women to tuberculosis.

Meanwhile, he argues, accelerating industrial capitalism, with its debilitating physical labor affecting a Chxntenay-sur-loire male workforce, weakened the resistance of men to infection. However, far more detailed research is needed before this significant historical change Grandma sex Chantenay-sur-loire be satisfactorily explained by these or any other factors.